Wang Jianxun the Confederate government which existed defects

Wang Jianxun: the Confederate government which existed defects? The unanimous vote of consent is the most legitimate principle of voting, that is to say, no one is forced to do so without the consent of all. But the biggest problem with the consensus is that the transaction costs are too high. The author: Wang Jianxun (associate professor at the China University of Political Science and Law) in order to demonstrate why from the Confederation to the Federation, "Federalist Papers" the author examines the history of the Confederate failures. They found that, from ancient Greece to the modern alliance of Germany, Switzerland and Poland Confederation, failed mainly because they too loose, all the members of a sovereign and independent basis, can not be ruled directly to the public. Switzerland is worth noting. It is a long Confederate and federal traditional country, continental Europe is the rare early establishment of the Federal Republic of place, early become a free social place. From the beginning of thirteenth Century, the Swiss Confederation and have federal tradition, every village is a small republic, they called the "commune" (commune), each commune is an autonomous republic. Eighteenth Century Swiss Confederation, it is difficult to imagine that such a small country in Switzerland is a federal system, the country is only about 7 million people, equivalent to Beijing’s population of 1/3, small enough. It is a country that is divided into 26 states, the state of the United states. These 26 republics are divided into 2700 communes or towns, each of which is highly autonomous. It can even be said that the Swiss Federal farther than the United States, in the United States, every citizen has dual citizenship, for example, first you are citizens of California, then you are a citizen of United States of America, but in Switzerland, every citizen has three citizenship, first you is a commune you are a citizen, then state citizens, then you are a citizen of Swiss Confederation. Moreover, some of its powers than the United States, the state is still large, a certain degree of diplomatic power, can be signed with foreign countries, some economic agreements, the power is considerable. Switzerland is characterized by the fact that a lot of business is to engage in direct democracy, referendum, because it is small. You think, if the whole country is divided into 2700 communes, there are not many people in each commune. They are now meeting to discuss important affairs or the whole commune people gathered in a square, the meeting, when the meeting vote is in accordance with the size of the sound, not strictly checked, the host asked participants to agree or disagree with a plan, if the voice of the pro. Switzerland is the implementation of direct democracy and indirect combination of democratic system, it at the federal level, a representative at the state level, the election members at the grassroots level is the implementation of direct democracy, because it is small enough, small enough population. Of course, Switzerland has a unique geographical position, so that the surrounding powers want to occupy it or eat it, it is not so easy, whether it is France or Germany, because it is in addition to the mountains of water. Holland provincial example is also very interesting. Holland began to establish a Republic since sixteenth Century, is China twentieth Century.相关的主题文章: